What are Science Majors? Your Quick Guide

In the ever-advancing landscape of higher education, science majors and science degrees stand as integral pillars of academic pursuit. Fields such as chemistry, physics, and biology are at the forefront of innovation and discovery, driving progress across numerous industries.

This quick guide aims to shed light on the essential aspects of science majors, including their duration, the diverse disciplines they encompass, and their pivotal role within the STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) domain.

Whether you are contemplating a Bachelor of Science or navigating the complex terrain of STEM majors, this article offers a comprehensive overview to assist you in making informed decisions regarding your academic journey.

What are Science Majors?

science majors holding a test tube

In the realm of higher education, science majors serve as the foundation for understanding the natural world and fueling innovation across various sectors. These fields of study, encapsulated within science degrees, encompass a range of disciplines, each with its own unique focus and significance. Here, we explore some of the prominent science majors, shedding light on their importance in the context of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) and the demand for science degrees.


Chemistry majors delve into the composition, properties, and transformations of matter. They explore the intricacies of chemical reactions, the elements that make up our world, and the development of novel materials with diverse applications.


Physics majors investigate the fundamental laws governing the behavior of matter and energy in the universe. They seek answers to questions about motion, forces, and the underlying structure of the cosmos.


Biology majors focus on the science of life itself. They examine living organisms at various scales, from cellular processes to complex ecosystems, seeking to understand their structures, functions, and interactions.

These science majors typically require several years of study, often culminating in a Bachelor of Science degree. The demand for science degrees continues to rise as these disciplines drive technological advancements and contribute to solving complex global challenges.

Chemistry-Based Science Majors

In the realm of science majors, chemistry-based majors hold a distinct and pivotal place. These specialized fields of study, nested within the broader domain of science degrees, are dedicated to the understanding and exploration of the intricate world of chemical substances, reactions, and materials.

Let’s embark on a brief journey through some of the notable chemistry-based majors, exploring their significance in the context of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) and the ever-growing demand for science degrees.


The cornerstone of chemistry-based majors, a degree in chemistry delves deep into the realm of matter and its transformations. Chemistry majors investigate the properties of substances, the intricacies of chemical reactions, and the synthesis of new compounds. Their work underpins advancements in medicine, materials science, and environmental sustainability.

Chemical Engineering

Chemical engineering majors apply the principles of chemistry to design and optimize processes for the production of chemicals, fuels, and materials on an industrial scale. They bridge the gap between scientific discovery and practical applications, contributing to fields like energy production and pharmaceuticals.


Biochemistry majors explore the chemical processes that occur within living organisms. They investigate the molecular mechanisms behind life, from cellular functions to genetics. Biochemistry is at the heart of medical research, biotechnology, and advancements in healthcare.

Materials Science and Engineering

Materials Science and Engineering majors study the properties and behavior of materials, ranging from metals and polymers to nanomaterials. Their work drives innovation in areas such as electronics, aerospace, and renewable energy, shaping the materials of the future.

In terms of duration, these chemistry-based majors typically span several years, culminating in a Bachelor of Science degree. The demand for science degrees in these fields remains high, given their critical role in addressing global challenges and propelling technological advancements.

Physics-Based Science Majors

Within the realm of science majors, physics-based majors stand as pillars for understanding the fundamental laws that govern the physical universe. These specialized fields of study, encapsulated within science degrees, are dedicated to unraveling the mysteries of matter, energy, and the cosmos.


At the heart of physics-based majors lies the discipline of physics itself. Physics majors delve deep into the fundamental principles that underlie the behavior of matter and energy in the universe. They explore topics such as classical mechanics, electromagnetism, quantum mechanics, and relativity. Physics is the foundation for understanding the physical world, from subatomic particles to the vast cosmos.


Astronomy majors extend their gaze beyond our planet to explore the wonders of the universe. They study celestial objects, galaxies, stars, and cosmic phenomena. Astronomy plays a vital role in unraveling the mysteries of the cosmos and answering profound questions about the nature of our universe.


Astrophysics combines the principles of physics with the study of celestial objects and phenomena. Astrophysics majors investigate the physical processes governing stars, galaxies, black holes, and the origin and fate of the universe. Their work contributes to our understanding of the cosmos on a grand scale.


Geophysics majors focus on the Earth itself, applying principles from physics to study its internal structure, seismic activity, and geological processes. They play a crucial role in understanding natural disasters, resource exploration, and environmental sustainability.

These physics-based majors typically span several years of study, culminating in a Bachelor of Science degree. The demand for science degrees in these fields remains robust, given their pivotal role in advancing scientific knowledge and technological innovations.

Environment-Related Majors

Environment-related majors play a vital role in addressing the pressing environmental challenges facing our planet today. These specialized fields of study, nested within the domain of science degrees, focus on understanding and safeguarding the natural world. 

Environmental Science

Environmental science majors study the interplay between the environment and human activities. They explore topics such as ecology, conservation, and environmental policy. Environmental scientists play a crucial role in identifying and mitigating environmental challenges, from climate change to habitat loss.


Ecology majors delve into the intricate relationships between organisms and their environments. They investigate ecosystems, biodiversity, and the impact of human activities on natural habitats. Ecologists contribute to conservation efforts and sustainable resource management.

Environmental Engineering

Environmental Engineering majors apply principles of engineering to address environmental problems. They design solutions for issues like water and air pollution, waste management, and sustainable infrastructure development. Their work promotes environmental sustainability and public health.

Geography (Environmental Focus)

Geography majors, particularly those with an environmental focus, analyze the spatial distribution of environmental phenomena. They study climate patterns, land use, and the impact of geography on environmental processes. Geographers provide insights into resource management and disaster planning.

Sustainability Studies

Sustainability Studies majors explore the principles of sustainability and examine strategies for balancing economic, social, and environmental needs. They play a key role in developing sustainable practices in various industries and communities.

These environment-related majors typically span several years, leading to degrees such as a Bachelor of Science. The demand for science degrees in these fields continues to grow as environmental issues become increasingly prominent on a global scale.

Top 10 Best Science Majors

Here are the top 10 science majors, considering their value to society, job opportunities, and the depth of knowledge they offer:


Chemistry majors contribute to advancements in medicine, materials science, and environmental sustainability. They have diverse career opportunities, from pharmaceutical research to chemical engineering.


Physics majors unlock the mysteries of the universe and drive technological innovations. They find careers in research, engineering, and academia.


Biology majors study life itself and play vital roles in healthcare, conservation, and biotechnology. They pursue careers in medicine, research, and environmental science.

Environmental Science

Environmental science majors address pressing environmental challenges, making significant contributions to sustainability and resource management. They find opportunities in environmental consulting and policy.

Computer Science

Computer science majors drive the digital age, shaping technology and innovation. They have abundant job opportunities in software development, data analysis, and artificial intelligence.


Nursing majors are crucial for healthcare, providing patient care, and promoting well-being. They enjoy high demand and diverse career options in healthcare settings.


Geology majors study Earth’s processes and resources, contributing to understanding natural hazards and resource exploration. They work in fields such as energy, environmental consulting, and academia.


Astronomy majors explore the cosmos, expanding our knowledge of the universe. While research-focused careers are common, they also contribute to science, communication, and education.


Mathematics majors play a fundamental role in various fields, from finance to engineering. Their analytical skills are in demand across industries.

Biomedical Engineering

Biomedical engineering majors bridge biology and engineering, creating medical devices and solutions. They contribute to healthcare advancements and have growing job prospects.

These science majors are a mix of applied science and pure science majors. They not only offer valuable contributions to society but also provide diverse career opportunities and opportunities for in-depth knowledge exploration.

Online Science Majors: Should You Take One?

Online science majors offer a convenient pathway for individuals seeking to pursue a physical science degree, such as physics, chemistry, or biology, from the comfort of their own space. The choice to embark on such a journey depends on various factors, each of which carries its own weight.

Firstly, the suitability of an online science major depends on the specific program and institution offering it. It’s essential to ensure that the online program aligns with your academic and career goals and is accredited by relevant authorities.

Secondly, consider your own learning style and discipline. Online programs often require self-motivation, time management, and the ability to navigate digital platforms effectively. If you possess these qualities, an online science major might suit you well.

Furthermore, evaluate the practical aspects, such as access to laboratory resources and hands-on experiments. While some online science programs provide virtual labs, they may not fully replicate the hands-on experience you’d receive in a traditional classroom setting.

Skills You Develop in Science Majors

In a physical science major, which encompasses fields like physics, chemistry, and biology, you acquire a diverse set of skills that extend beyond your understanding of the subject matter. These skills are not only valuable within the realm of physical sciences but also have broader applications in various aspects of life and work.

  • Analytical Thinking: Science majors develop strong analytical skills, allowing them to break down complex problems into manageable components and analyze data critically.
  • Problem-Solving: They excel in problem-solving, identifying challenges, formulating hypotheses, and testing solutions, a skill applicable in both science and everyday life.
  • Attention to Detail: The precision required in laboratory work and research fosters an acute attention to detail, ensuring accuracy and reliability in tasks.
  • Critical Thinking: Science majors cultivate critical thinking abilities, enabling them to evaluate information, make informed decisions, and approach issues from multiple perspectives.
  • Research Proficiency: They gain proficiency in research methodologies, from literature review to experimental design, which translates into effective information gathering and evidence-based decision-making.
  • Effective Communication: The ability to communicate complex ideas clearly and concisely is honed, facilitating collaboration with peers, presenting findings, and conveying information to diverse audiences.
  • Time Management: The demanding coursework teaches effective time management, a skill valuable for meeting deadlines and balancing academic and personal responsibilities.
  • Adaptability: Science majors learn to adapt to new technologies and methodologies, crucial in a rapidly evolving scientific landscape and any career that embraces innovation.
  • Teamwork: Collaborative projects in laboratories or group research endeavors foster teamwork and interpersonal skills, vital for professional and personal interactions.
  • Ethical Awareness: Ethical considerations are integral to scientific research, instilling a strong sense of integrity, responsibility, and ethics.

In summary, a physical science major equips you with a robust skill set that extends far beyond the boundaries of the laboratory or classroom. These skills are transferable to a wide range of professions, making science majors valuable contributors to various industries and society as a whole.

Jobs for Science Degree Graduates

Here are the top 10 jobs for science degree graduates, along with more detailed descriptions of their roles and societal significance:

Medical Doctor (Physician)

Definition: Medical doctors, or physicians, are healthcare professionals who diagnose and treat medical conditions. They provide crucial medical care, offering expertise and empathy to patients in need.

Value to Society: Physicians are at the forefront of healthcare, saving lives, and promoting well-being. Their tireless efforts and dedication contribute significantly to overall public health.

Salary: Medical doctors earn an excellent average annual salary of around $238,795 or more.


Definition: Pharmacists are experts in medication management and dispensing. They ensure the safe and effective use of medications, providing essential guidance to patients and healthcare providers.

Value to Society: Pharmacists play a crucial role in patient health and safety, ensuring that medications are administered correctly and free from harmful interactions.

Salary: Pharmacists earn a competitive average annual salary of approximately $126,170.

Software Developer

Definition: Software developers design and create computer software and applications, driving technological innovation and shaping the digital landscape.

Value to Society: Their work provides solutions to various industries, enhancing efficiency and improving the way we live and work in a digital age.

Salary: Software developers earn an excellent average annual salary of around $106,197 or more.

Data Scientist

Definition: Data scientists are analysts who interpret data to provide valuable insights for decision-making. They are sought after across industries for their expertise in transforming data into actionable information.

Value to Society: Data scientists enable organizations to make informed choices based on data-driven evidence, driving progress in various fields.

Salary: Data scientists handle technical roles, yet they earn an excellent average annual salary of around $152,302 or more.

Environmental Scientist

Definition: Environmental scientists study the environment and address pressing environmental issues. They play a vital role in promoting sustainability and responsible resource management.

Value to Society: Their work safeguards our planet, ensuring that future generations can enjoy a clean and healthy environment.

Salary: Environmental scientists earn a competitive average annual salary of approximately $66,976 as they lead the environmental awareness movement around the world.

And so on, for the remaining careers. These science-related careers offer diverse opportunities, competitive salaries, and significant contributions to society through healthcare, technology, education, and environmental conservation. If you want to know about the top jobs for science degrees, check out our article!

Is a Science Degree Worth it?

A science degree can be highly valuable and worth pursuing for many individuals, but the decision depends on your interests, career goals, and personal circumstances. Here are some considerations to help you determine if a science degree is worth it for you:

  • Passion for Science: If you have a genuine interest in scientific topics and enjoy exploring the natural world, a science degree can be incredibly rewarding. It allows you to delve deep into your passion and gain in-depth knowledge.
  • Career Opportunities: Science degrees open doors to a wide range of career opportunities in fields such as healthcare, technology, research, education, and more. These careers often come with competitive salaries and job security.
  • Problem-Solving Skills: Science education equips you with strong problem-solving, critical thinking, and analytical skills that are valuable in various professions, not just in scientific roles.
  • Innovation and Discovery: Science graduates have the opportunity to contribute to groundbreaking discoveries, technological advancements, and solutions to pressing global issues.
  • Flexibility: Science degrees provide a solid foundation that can be applied to diverse careers. You can pivot into different fields or pursue advanced degrees for specialization.
  • Societal Impact: Many science-related careers have a direct and positive impact on society, such as improving healthcare, addressing environmental challenges, or advancing technology.
  • Job Demand: The demand for individuals with science backgrounds is often high, and this trend is expected to continue as industries evolve and require more scientific expertise.

Ultimately, whether a science degree is worth it for you depends on your passion for science, your career aspirations, and how well it aligns with your personal and professional goals. It’s advisable to research potential career paths and speak with academic advisors or professionals in your chosen field to make an informed decision.

A science major student looking through the microscope

Frequently Asked Questions About a Science Major

What is the hardest science major?

The hardest science major is often considered to be physics. Physics involves very complex mathematical calculations and requires deep analytical thinking to understand abstract concepts like quantum mechanics and relativity. The coursework is heavy on theoretical problem-solving and applying advanced calculus and differential equations. Classes require long hours of difficult homework. Lab components also further add to the workload. Overall, physics is regarded as extremely challenging but can be deeply rewarding for those who enjoy unraveling the mysteries of the universe through math and science.

Check out whether a physics degree is worth it or not in my video:

Is Biology a BA or BS Degree?

A BA in biology typically includes a broader range of coursework. It’s for those who wish to explore biology alongside other subjects like the humanities or social sciences. This can be great if you want a well-rounded education or plan to teach biology. On the flip side, a BS in biology hones in on the scientific nitty-gritty. It’s laden with biology courses and lab work. This track is perfect if you aspire to be a researcher, work in healthcare, or dive deep into the biological sciences.

Is BS biology a hard course?

Yes, a Bachelor of Science (BS) in biology can be a challenging course of study. It typically involves a rigorous curriculum with in-depth coursework in biology, chemistry, mathematics, and related fields. The difficulty can vary depending on factors like the specific program, your individual strengths and interests, and your study habits. However, in general, students pursuing a BS in Biology should be prepared for a demanding academic experience that includes complex scientific concepts, laboratory work, and research projects.

Is BS biology a pre-med?

Yes, a Bachelor of Science (BS) degree in biology is a common choice for students who plan to pursue a medical career. While it’s not the only path to medical school, a BS in Biology provides a strong foundation in the natural sciences and can help prepare students for the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT) and the academic rigors of medical school.

Many pre-medical students major in biology because it aligns well with the prerequisites for medical school. However, it’s important to note that medical schools typically require a well-rounded education, so pre-medical students are encouraged to take a variety of courses beyond just biology, including chemistry, physics, and mathematics.

Can BS biology graduate be a nurse?

Yes, a Bachelor of Science (BS) degree in biology can be a suitable educational background for someone who wants to become a nurse. However, to become a nurse, you’ll typically need to complete specific prerequisite courses in areas like anatomy, physiology, microbiology, and chemistry. A BS in Biology may cover some of these courses, but you might need to take additional classes to meet the requirements for nursing programs.

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